FIRPTA (Foreign Investment in Real Property Act)

FIRPTA (Foreign Investment in Real Property Act)

What is FIRPTA

While there are many different acronyms involving international tax law, one of the most important international tax laws that impact non-residents (including expatriates) who have ownership of US real property is FIRPTA (Foreign Investment in Real Property Act). In accordance with FIRPTA, a nonresident alien who has ownership of certain US real property is required to deposit a 15% withholding of the sale price — not the gain — with the Internal Revenue Service. The idea behind FIRPTA is that unless potential tax liabilities are withheld prior to the exchange between buyers/sellers there is nothing motivating a non-resident alien who may have no other ties with the United States, to pay tax to the US for the sale of the property. Unlike other types of capital gains (not involved in a US trade or business), which may escape US tax, the United States taxes the sale of real property within its borders, even if the owner of the property is a non-resident alien. In accordance with FIRPTA, non-residents may still be able to avoid making a deposit through the withholding exemption certificate rules by filing IRS Form 8288-B. Let’s walk through the basics of FIRPTA.

Withholding of Tax on Dispositions of United States Real Property Interests

      • The disposition of a U.S. real property interest by a foreign person (the transferor) is subject to the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980 (FIRPTA) income tax withholding. FIRPTA authorized the United States to tax foreign persons on dispositions of U.S. real property interests.

      • A disposition means “disposition” for any purpose of the Internal Revenue Code. This includes but is not limited to a sale or exchange, liquidation, redemption, gift, transfers, etc. Persons purchasing U.S. real property interests (transferees) from foreign persons, certain purchasers’ agents, and settlement officers are required to withhold 15% (10% for dispositions before February 17, 2016) of the amount realized on the disposition (special rules for foreign corporations).

      • In most cases, the transferee/buyer is the withholding agent. If you are the transferee/buyer, you must find out if the transferor is a foreign person. If the transferor is a foreign person and you fail to withhold, you may be held liable for the tax. For cases in which a U.S. business entity such as a corporation or partnership disposes of a U.S. real property interest, the business entity itself is the withholding agent.

U.S. Real Property Interest

      • A U.S. real property interest is an interest, other than as a creditor, in real property (including an interest in a mine, well, or other natural deposit) located in the United States or the U.S. Virgin Islands, as well as certain personal property that is associated with the use of real property (such as farming machinery). It also means any interest, other than as a creditor, in any domestic corporation unless it is established that the corporation was at no time a U.S. real property holding corporation during the shorter of the period during which the interest was held, or the 5-year period ending on the date of disposition (applicable periods).

      • An interest in a corporation is not a U.S. real property interest if:

          • Such corporation did not hold any U.S. real property interests on the date of disposition,

          • All the U. S. real property interests held by such corporation at any time during the shorter of the applicable periods were disposed of in transactions in which the full amount of any gain was recognized, and

          • For dispositions after December 17, 2015, such corporation and any predecessor of such corporation was not a RIC or a REIT during the shorter of the applicable periods during which the interest was held.

Rates of Withholding

  • The transferee must deduct and withhold a tax on the total amount realized by the foreign person on the disposition. The rate of withholding generally is 15% (10% for dispositions before February 17, 2016).

  • The amount realized is the sum of:

      • The cash paid, or to be paid (principal only);

      • The fair market value of other property transferred, or to be transferred; and

      • The amount of any liability assumed by the transferee or to which the property is subject immediately before and after the transfer.

      • If the property transferred was owned jointly by U.S. and foreign persons, the amount realized is allocated between the transferors based on the capital contribution of each transferor.

      • A foreign corporation that distributes a U.S. real property interest must withhold a tax equal to 21% of the gain it recognizes on the distribution to its shareholders.

      • A domestic corporation must withhold tax on the fair market value of the property distributed to a foreign shareholder if:

          • The shareholder’s interest in the corporation is a U.S. real property interest, and

          • The property distributed is either in redemption of stock or in liquidation of the corporation.

      • For distributions before February 17, 2016, the corporation generally must withhold 10% of the amount realized by a foreign person. For distributions after February 16, 2016, the rate increases to 15%.

      • For additional information on the withholding rules that apply to corporations, trusts, estates, and REITs, refer to section 1445 of the Internal Revenue Code and the related regulations. For additional information on the withholding rules that apply to partnerships, refer to discussion under partnership withholding. Also, consult the “U.S. Real Property Interest” section in IRS Publication 515, Withholding of Tax on Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Entities.

FIRPTA documents are processed at:

Internal Revenue Service Center
P.O. Box 409101
Ogden, UT 84409

References/Related Topics

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